Citing Electronic References

Back in the day when my English class went to the Woodward Memorial Library to learn how to use the Dewey Decimal System and how to do reference citations, there was no Internet, no personal computer software, no CD-ROMs, websites, blogs, or any other form of electronic documentation one might want to cite in one’s paper. (Yeah, I’m that old. I finally broke down and colored my hair. “I dream of Jeannie with the gray hair” just doesn’t cut it. It simply had to be light brown.)

But I digress.

Today, people turn to the Web for a great deal of their research (God bless the guy who invented Google). Electronic sources listed should be generally available, and that means that personal email communication from your LinkedIn pals doesn’t count as a citable source. Here’s how to cite three types of generally available electronic sources in your list of references at the end of your paper.

Company Website Example:
Acme Blowout Preventers. 2011. SuperDeep BOP 9000, Retrieved March 30, 2011.

Software Example:
Eclipse Reservoir Engineering Software. 2010. Schlumberger,

CD-ROM Example:
SPE MasterDisc [CD-ROM]. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers; 1993.


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